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Pengertian dan cara kerja mobil listrik

Mobil listrik yaitu sebuah mobil yang memakai listrik untuk sumber tenaganya (tenaga penggerak). Dalam artian lain Mobil Listik di kenal dalam arti Electric road vehicles yang di Amerika di kembangkan jadi dua (2) type, di antaranya ; Zero Emission Vehicles serta Low Emission Vehicles. Mobil listrik yang masuk dalam kategori Zero Emission Vehicles yaitu Mobil Batterai (menggunakan batterai) serta Mobil Fuel cell.

Pengertian

Sedang yang dikategorikan jadi LEV yaitu mobil yang system penggeraknya menggabungkan pada convensional engine dengan motor listrik (mobil Hbrida).

1. Mobil Listrik “Batterai Operate” Mobil listrik type ini memercayakan batterai untuk sumber daya untuk menggerakkan kendaraan. Sisi yang benar-benar utama pada mobil listrik type ini ada 5 sisi : 1). Motor listrik. 2). Batterai (AKI). 3). Charger (Alat pengisian lagi daya listrik pada AKI). 4). System Kondali (Controller). 5). Managemen Daya (EMS) atau Energy managemen System

2. Mobil Hybrid Teknologi Mobil hybrid yang dipopulerkan oleh Toyota serta Hondaini, Untuk jalan keluar menghemat BBM serta menangani pencemaran lingkungan. Langkah kerja mesin listrik dengan prinsip regenerative (isi lagi/recharging waktu kendaraan tengah beroperasi) pada mesin hybrid, tidak sama dengan mobil tenaga listrik penuh. Mobil itu tak dapat isi lagi listriknya. Apabila listriknya habis, Batterai/aki mesti di-charge dengan cara spesial dengan saat 8 sampai 12 jam (untuk teknologi charger onboard). Spesial mesin hybrid, mesin listriknya dapat isi lagi ke aki dengan memakai kinetic energy waktu mengerem (regenerative brakeing). Juga beberapa daya mesin dari mesin bensin/solar/bio fuel waktu jalan listriknya dapat disalurkan untuk isi batterai/aki.
Dengan system operasi seperti ini maka bakal berlangsung penghematan BBM. Di Kota Tokyo Jepang, truk serta bus telah banyak yang menggunakan tenaga mesin sistem hybrid lantaran dinilai sangat efektif/irit BBM serta kurangi polusi. Type mesin hybrid dengan cara umum ada yang menggunakan system paralel serta system seri, tetapi yang paling umum yaitu parallel. Mesin listrik pada kendaran hybrid

Dengan system operasi seperti ini maka bakal berlangsung penghematan BBM. Di Kota Tokyo Jepang, truk serta bus telah banyak yang menggunakan tenaga mesin sistem hybrid lantaran dinilai sangat efektif/irit BBM serta kurangi polusi. Type mesin hybrid dengan cara umum ada yang menggunakan system paralel serta system seri, tetapi yang paling umum yaitu parallel. Mesin listrik pada kendaran hybrid sesungguhnya hanya untuk penunjang atau dapat dimaksud booster, pada mesin utama yang menggunakan bensin maupun solar. Mesin listrik yang kecil pada kendaraan type hybrid tidak bakal kuat menggerakkan mobil dengan cara normal. Perubahan teknologi mesin hybrid memanglah saat ini makin cepat. Begitupun dalam pengisian lagi listriknya yang makin mutakhir, cepat, serta tenaga mesin listriknya makin besar.

3. Mobil Surya “Solar Car” Mobil tenaga surya atau tenaga matahari, yaitu type kendaraan listrik yang memakai tenaga matahari untuk sumber dayanya. Daya matahari di tangkap dengan memakai panel cell surya lalu dipakai untuk menggerakkan motor listrik yang berperan untuk memutar roda. Supaya bisa dipakai dengan cara stabil maka pada mobil surya dilengkapi dengan area untuk menyimpan energy (energy storage) biasanya dipakai accu/aki atau batterai. Dilengkapai dengan alat control pengatur kecepatan maka mobil ini bisa melaju sesuai sama dengan kecepatan sesuai sama dengan kecepatan yang dirancang. Di Indonesia berkisar 12 th. yang lalu mobil surya ini di kembangkan oleh mahasiswa ITS Surabaya.

4. Mobil Fuel Cell - Fuel Cell yaitu suatu terobosan teknologi yang dikerjakan oleh kelompok ilimuan serta industri mobil untuk mencari sumber daya alternatif penggerak mesin. Serta satu diantara pilihan terkuat yaitu bahan bakar hidrogen, dipilihnya hydrogen lantaran dikira penuhi dua argumen utama, yaitu lantaran hidrogen ramah lingkungan. Gas buang hasil pembakaran hidrogen sekalipun tak mencemari lingkungan. Argumen ke-2, lantaran dengan cara alamiah hidrogen ada dalam jumlah besar sampai dapat digunakan dari generasi ke generasi. Hidrogen dengan cara ekonomis bisa didapat dengan murah.

Siklus air juga sangat mungkin hidrogen ada dalam periode panjang. Hidrogen adalah satu diantara pilihan kuat untuk bahan bakar mobil saat hadir, menukar peran bahan bakar minyak (BBM) yang tingkat polusinya tinggi serta semakin tidak tebal ketersediaannya di alam. Hidrogen dapat didapat lewat cara lewat sistem meng elektrolisa air. langkah tersebut dikira tak merubah keseimbangan alam, benar-benar sederhana, efisien serta bersih. Yaitu dengan tehnik elektrolisa air dalam jumlah besar dengan memakai tenaga listrik.

Langkahnya dua elektroda dibenamkan ke dalam bak diisi air, untuk memancing hidrogen. Ion-ion hidrogen yang bermuatan positif (kation) berkumpul di seputar katoda negatif. Sedang ion-ion oksigen (anion) dihimpun menuju anoda positif. Dengan demikian terbentuklah hidrogen dalam wujud gas. Sesudah hydrogen dalam wujud gas diperoleh, maka lewat teknologi pembakaran ‘dingin’ didalam suatu sel listrik, yang akhirnya berbentuk tenaga listrik untuk menggerakkan mobil.

Prinsip Cara Kerja Mobil Listrik

Cara kerja mobil listrik - Daya Listrik yang bersumber dari listrik PLN atau Generator lewat alat pengisisan (Charger) yang berperan untuk merubah arus bolak balik (AC) jadi arus searah (DC) sesuai sama dengan keperluan pengisian dari baterai lewat dua buah kabel yakni positif serta negatif untuk isi baterai.
Cara kerja mobil listrik - Daya Listrik yang bersumber dari listrik PLN atau Generator lewat alat pengisisan (Charger) yang berperan untuk merubah arus bolak balik (AC) jadi arus searah (DC) sesuai sama dengan keperluan pengisian dari baterai lewat dua buah kabel yakni positif serta negatif untuk isi baterai. Baterai terbagi dalam 3 unit, 12 Volt, 200 Ah dipasang dengan cara seri di mana terminal positf baterai 1 dikaitkan ke terminal negatif dari baterai 2 serta terminal positif dari baterai 2 dikaitkan ke terminal negatif baterai 3 sedang terminal negatif dari baterai 1 serta terminal positif baterai 3 diperoleh keluaran sebesar 36 V, 200 Ah

Sesudah baterai penuh, listrik yang tersimpan pada baterai bisa dipakai untuk memutar motor penggerak lewat solenoid yang mempunyai 2 terminal yang berperan menyambung serta memutus di mana terminal positif pada baterai dipasang pada satu diantara terminal pada solenoide dikaitkan ke kendali kecepatan, di mana solenoide ini dikendalikan oleh dua buah saklar sebagai pembatas yang di gunakan pada system gas serta rem yang cuma bisa berperan sesudah kunci kontak dinyalakan.

Untuk mengatur besar kecilnya putaran motor penggerak dipakai kendali kecepatan yang mempunyai 4 buah terminal utama yang di beri sinyal masing masing terminal Bat +, Bat -, A2, M -, serta juga tiga buah terminal untuk input dari potensio atau induktiv. Kabel positif yang lewat solenoid dikaitkan pada terminal Bat + pada kendali kecepatan.

Kendali yang inputnya berbentuk tanda analog dari potensio serta juga induktiv trhole sensor yang dipasang pada mekanisme gas, supaya kendaraan bisa bergerak maju, mundur serta netral dipakai saklar mekanis maju mundur SM3 (saklar mekanis maju mundur) yang diberi nama masing masing terminal a1, a2, b, c d1, d2 terminal C dikaitkan ke terminal A2 kendali kecepatan, lewat terminal A2 pada motor penggerak. Terminal M- pada kendali kecepatan dikaitkan segera ke A1 pada motor penggerak. Untuk terminal B serta D pada SM3 mempunyai dua buah kutub di mana digunakan untuk membolak balikan input arah arus pada terminal S1 serta S2 pada motor penggerak

System Penggerak

Saklar pembatas yang dilengkapi dengan pelatuk melekat di bagian batang pengungkit yang berkerja jika pedal rem ditekan batang pengungkit akan menghimpit pelatuk dari saklar pembatas hingga arus yang mengalir lewat terminal penghubung dari saklar pembatas bakal terputus saat itu juga jika sistem pengereman mekanis pada roda kendaraan listrik ini yang digerakkan.
Saklar pembatas yang dilengkapi dengan pelatuk melekat di bagian batang pengungkit yang berkerja jika pedal rem ditekan batang pengungkit akan menghimpit pelatuk dari saklar pembatas hingga arus yang mengalir lewat terminal penghubung dari saklar pembatas bakal terputus saat itu juga jika sistem pengereman mekanis pada roda kendaraan listrik ini yang digerakkan.

Sistem penekanan batang pengungkit pada pelatuk saklar pembatas bisa disetel jarak aktifnya supaya pada waktu mengemudi menenmpelkan kakinya pada pedal rem yang tiada punya maksud menghimpit hingga saklar pembatas tak lagi berperan namun jika desakan yang didapatkan melebihi batas yang didapatkan maka saklar pembatas bakal bekerja dengan terbaik, maksudnya yaitu jika system penggerak mobil listrik ini tengah beroperasi tiba tiba ingindara menghimpit pedal rem maka beban yang disebabkan oleh pengereman tak lagi punya pengaruh pada system tenaga lantaran terlebih dulu system daya sudah terputus lewat saklar pembatas yang dipasang untuk pengaman.

Cara kerja kenderaan listrik ini pada system penggerak ini cuma bisa dioperasikan jika kunci kontak di on kan atau dinyalakan lalu pedal gas ditekan, bisa diterangkan bahwasanya jika pedal gas ditekan maka batang penarik bakal menarik pengungkit poros dari potensio lalu pengungkit itu bakal melepas desakan pelatuk saklar pembatas hingga arus listrik yang bakal menggerakkan solenoide bisa terhubung lewat terminal 1 dari saklar pembatas.

System ini mempunyai tujuan supaya daya listrik tak terbuang sia-sia pada waktu kendaraan alami jalan penurunan atau pada jalur macet serta juga berperan untuk pengaman.
Untuk System maju mundur dengan memakai SM3 :

Prinsip basic pembalikan putaran motor penggerak type ini bisa dikerjakan dengan pembalikan arah arus yang mengalir pada lilitan stator motor, untuk arah maju bermakna arus yang mengalir dari terminal C pada SM3 lalu mekanis saklar memindahkan jalinan dengan cara mekanis menyambungkan C ke terminal B pada SM3 lalu dikaitkan ke terminal S1 pada motor penggerak hingga arus mengalir menuju terminal S2 pada motor penggerak yang segera dikaitkan ke kendali kecepatan pada terminal M-.

Untuk posisi mundur yang dipertunjukkan pada gambar dikerjakan dengan pembalikan arah arus yang dipertunjukkan bahwasanya arus yang mengalir dari terminal motor A1 dengan memakai SM3 dikaitkan dengan terminal A pada SM3 (5) lalu mekanis saklar memindahkan jalinan dengan cara mekanis menyambungkan terminal C ke terminal D pada SM3, lalu dihubungakan ke terminal S2 pada motor penggerak yang segera dikaitkan ke kendali kecepatan pada terminal M-. Tersebut penjelasan pemakaian SM3 pada system Maju Mundur serta Netral :

Supaya kendaraan bisa bergerak maju, mundur serta posisi netral dipakai alat saklar mekanis maju mundur (SM3) pada gambar, yang mempunyai enam terminal yang di beri kode masing masing a, b, c, d. Terminal a dikaitkan ke terminal A kendali Kecepatan lewat terminal A1 serta A2 pada motor penggerak.

Terminal c pada SM3 dikaitkan segera ke terminal M dari kendali kecepatan. Untuk terminal b & d mempunyai dua buah kutub di mana digunakan untuk membolak balikan input arah arus pada terminal S1 & S2 pada motor Penggerak.

Pemakaian mikro switch untuk pengaman serta efisiensi daya :


Pemakaian Mikri swicth pada system mekanis gas untuk pengaman system serta efesiensi pemakaian daya listrik

Dengan Penggunaan mikro switch yang melekat pada mekanis gas yang berperan mengamankan system daya, lantaran system cuma bisa terima daya listrik jika pedal gas ditekan sesudah kunci kontak di ON kan, sekalian dapat juga menghemat daya listrik pada waktu kendaraan meniti jalanan macet serta penurunan

Untuk mengantisipasi rutinitas pengemudi yang umumnya menghimpit pedal gas kadang-kadang berbarengan dengan pengereman mekanis, juga dipakai mikro switch untuk pembatas.

Seperti yang diterangkan di atas mobil listrik mempunyai system penggerak listrik yang lebih simpel serta efektif. Dengan lakukan penentuan sebagian komponen yang dipakai dan disederhanakan, dikurangi serta dikumpulkan. Hingga system penggerak mobil listrik terbagi dalam system daya, system kendali, system maju mundur bisa berperan dengan terbaik.