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Cara Kerja EFI

EFI


Ada Beberapa jenis mesin injeksi yang perlu untuk anda ketahui
Electronic Petrol Injection atau di singkat dengan "EPI" atau juga dimaksud Eletronic Fuel Injection "EFI" yaitu merupakan teknologi pengontrolan penginjeksian dalam bahan bakar yang berkembang selagi ini pada mesin bensin menukar karburator. Biasanya sistim EPI/EFI terdiri atas 2 tipe :
Yakni Berdasar jumlah injectornya dan Berdasar pada penempatan injectornya.

Bab 1 Berdasar jumlah injektornya mesin EPI atau EFI

Single Point Injection (SPI)

Single Point Injection "SPI" atau umum dimaksud dengan Throttle Body Injection lebih singkatnya "TBI" atau Central Fuel Injection Sistem : yakni cuma memakai 1 Fuel Injector untuk lebih dari 1 Cylinder mesin. Injektornya dipasang sebelum akan saluran isap yakni diatas katup throttle. Prinsip kerjanya satu injektor berfungsi untuk memasok bensin di setiap kebutuhan lebih dari satu silinder sekalian. Konstruksi dari Single point injection

Konstruksi single point injector

mobil
Gambar Mobil

Multi Point Fuel Injection "MPI"

Multi Point Fuel Injection ini dimaksud juga port fuel injection atau PFI, tempatkan injektor diatas lubang isap "intake port". Tiap 1 silinder punya satu injektor. Kesimpulanya, seandainya mesin terdiri dalam 4 silinder artinya harus ada 4 injektor yang menyuplai bensin.

Konstruksi multi point fuel injection.

Pada Teknologi injeksi MPI punya lebih keunggulan bila dibanding kan dengan SPI. 1 contoh:
Adalah Distribusi gabungan udara-bahan bakarnya lebih seragam untuk masing-masing silinder mesin.

Pergantian posisi throttle lebih cepat.

Akan Lebih akurat bila dalam mengatur jumlah bahan bakar yang diinjeksikan sama sesuai dengan keadaan sistem operasi.

Dengan demikian performansi mesin akan jadi lebih terbaik, emisi menyusut, juga pemanfaatan bahan bakar menjadi lebih hemat. Namun, Sebaliknya SPI sistemnya lebih simple, condong tak sama rata lantaran distribusi gabungan udara-bahan bakar benar-benar di pengaruhi oleh design saluran isap.

Gasoline Direct injection "GDI" yakni Injector ada didalam area bakar, bisa di simpulkan bensin disemprotkan segera ke area bakar tiada kudu lewat Intake Valve. Teknologi ini tetap mahal, lantaran material Fuel Injector Nozzle kudu tahan pada suhu tinggi di area bakar.

Fuel Injection System

Berdasar penempatan injectornya

1. Indirect Injection
Yakni sistim penyemprotan bahan bakar ke intake manifold seperti yang difungsikan pada sistim penginjeksian mesin bensin, bensin disemprotkan tak segera ke dalam area bakar.

2. Direct Injection
Yakni sistim penyemprotan bahan bakar segera ke dalam area bakar. Injectornya ada didalam area bakar, jadi bensin disemprotkan segera ke area bakar tiada kudu lewat Intake Valve. Teknologi ini tetap mahal, lantaran material Fuel Injector Nozzle kudu tahan pada suhu tinggi di area bakar.

Konstruksi Dasar

Dengan cara umum konstruksi basic EPI/EFI terdiri dalam 3 sistim, yakni :
1. Sistim control angin masuk (Air Induction Sistem)
2. Sistim distribusi bahan bakar (Fuel Delivery Sistem)
3. Sistim control Eletronic (Eletronic Control Sistem).
Apabila diliat dari ketiga sistim control tertulis di atas berdasar pertalian yang satu dengan yang lain, sebagai rangkaian sistim yang sama sama tentang, yang masing-masing sistim punya peranan sendiri-sendiri. Untuk lebih memperjelas tiap-tiap sistim dengan komponen masing-masing, dapat diterangkan selanjutnya.

Konstruksi Basic EFI/EPI

Sistim control angin masuk (Air Induction Sistem)
Berdasar sistim kontrol angin masuk mesin EPI atau EFI sanggup digolongkan jadi 2 jenis, yakni :
Sistim D-EFI atau D-Jetronic (dari bhs Jerman “DRUCK” yang artinya dorongan, yakni sistim yang mengatur banyak angin masuk ke intake manifold diukur berdasar besarnya kevakuman. Computer memiliki input jumlah angin yang masuk ke intake air chamber dari sensor yang dipasangkan di intake manifold atau memiliki sumber identifikasi dari kevakuman intake manifold. Input inilah yang jadikan basic penginjeksian tak sekedar input dari putaran mesin. Pada mesin yang memakai sensor angin masuk dengan berdasar kevakuman, maka pergantian kevakuman pada inteke yang dapat merubah tegangan yang di kirim oleh sensor ke Elektronik Control Modul (ECM). ECM selanjutnya kirim tegangan sebesar 5 volt sbg input sensor.

Prinsip Basic D-Jetronic.

Dengan input sensor sebesar 5 V, akan membuat tegangan yang dikeluarkan (output sensor) karena pergantian kevakuman banyak ragam pada 0 – 5 volt.

Sistim L-EFI atau L-Jetronic (dari bhs Jerman “LUFT” yang artinya angin, yakni sistim yang mengatur banyak angin masuk ke intake manifold diukur berdasar besarnya kecepatan aliran angin. Computer memiliki input jumlah angin yang masuk ke intake air chamber dari sensor yang dipasangkan di intake manifold atau memiliki sumber identifikasi dari kecepatan aliaran angin pada intake manifold. Input inilah yang jadikan basic penginjeksian tak sekedar input dari putaran mesin.

Prinsip basic L-Jetronic

Pada mesin yang memakai sensor angin masuk berdasar kecepatan aliran angin, maka kecepatan angin dapat menggesek heat resistor yang dapat membuat perubahan nilai tahanan. Pergantian nilai tahanan resistor inilah yang dapat menjadikan pergantian tegangan yang dikeluarkan (output sensor). Dengan input sensor sebesar 12 volt serta tegangan yang keluar banyak ragam pada 0 – 5 volt, yang jadikan ECM sbg basic penghitungan jumlah angin yang masuk.

Sistim distribusi bahan bakar "Fuel Delivery Sistem"

Bahan bakar (bensin) ditekan oleh suatu pompa bensin eletrik yang dikontrol kerjanya oleh ECM, lewat saringan bahan bakar (fuel filter) dialirkan ke injector yang bekerjanya dikontrol oleh ECM. Bahan bakar disemprotkan selagi katup pada injector terbuka dengan cara terputus-putus. Lantaran dorongan pada pipa pembagi udah di buat terus oleh terdapatnya fuel pressure regulator, maka banyak bensin yang dismprotkan terkait dari lamanya injector terbuka.

Lamanya saat penginjeksian bahan bakar dengan cara umum terdiri atas 3 sistim :
  • Sebentar-sebentar (intermitten)
  • Yang dirapikan oleh saat (Timed).
  • Berlanjut (Continuous).

Sistim distribusi bahan bakar "Fuel Delivery Sistem"

Pada intermitten sistim, terbuka serta tertutupnya injector tak memandang keadaan kerja intake valve. Pada sistim penginjeksian ini bisa saja saja penyemprotan bahan bakar ke mesin waktu intake valve terbuka atau tertutup. Intermitten injection sistim umum dimaksud juga modulation injection sistim.
Pada timed injection sistim, bahan bakar nyata-nyata menyemprot ke dalam mesin sebelum akan atau selagi intake valve terbuka. Penyemprotan bensin pada sistim ini selamanya memandang keadaan kerja intake valve.

Pada continuos sistim, bahan bakar disemprotkan ke dalam mesin kapan waktu (tak henti) sepanjang mesin berputar. Pengontrolan perbandingan gabungan udara-bahan bakar lewat langkah menaikkan atau kurangi dorongan pada injektor. Lewat langkah ini dapat menaikkan atau kurangi bahan bakar yang keluar dari injector.

Sistim control

Dalam perubahannya sistim control penginjeksian mencakup :
1. Sistim control mekanik
2. Sistim kontrol hidrolik-mekanik
3. Sistim control elektronik.
Sistim control mekanik. Pengontrolan penginjeksian mekanik tak perlu ECM untuk mengontrol pembukaan injector. (saksikan

Sistim control mekanik.


Prinsip kerja :
Sensor plat dapat mendeteksi jumlah angin masuk, apabila angin masuk sedikit, maka gerakan dari sensor juga kecil, jikalau jumlah angin masuk makin tambah maka gerakan sensor dapat bergerak jadi tambah jauh jadi membesar. Gerakan sensor plat ini dikaitkan dengan suatu plunyer yang dapat tentukan besar kecilnya saluran bahan bakar ke injector.

Sistim kontrol hidrolik-mekanik. Sistim penginjeksian dengan control hidrolik-mekanik memakai unit pengontrolan gabungan (sensor angin masuk serta unit distributor bensin) untuk mengoprasikan injector. Sensor aliran angin masuk untuk sistim injeksi tipe ini tak memakai control elektronik.

Prinsip kerja :
Gerakan plat sensor angin masuk ini dikaitkan dengan plunyer yang diletakan ditengah distributor bensin. Waktu jumlah angin masuk makin tambah maka plat sensor dapat terdorong naik, gerakan ini juga mendorong plunyer. Gerakan plunyer ini dapat tentukan banyak minimal bahan bakar yang dapat dialirkan ke injector.

Sistim kontrol hidrolik-mekanik

Sistim kontrol elektronik

Pada sistim control elektronik memakai suatu engine control modul (ECM) yang memiliki fungsi sbg pusat pengontrolan sistim, mendapatkan input dari 2 sensor utama yakni sensor jumlah angin masuk serta sensor putaran mesin yang dapat difungsikan untuk tentukan basic injection volume. Tak sekedar dua sensor tertulis di atas ada sensor-sensor lain yang memiliki fungsi sbg input ECM untuk mengoreksi jumlah bahan bakar yang disemprotkan injector.

Sistim koreksi

Basic penginjeksian bahan bakar pada mesin EPI/EFI terkait pada dua sensor utama yakni sensor angin masuk serta sensor putaran mesin. Untuk menyempurnakan besarnya saat penginjeksian, maka dibutuhkan sensor lain sbg sensor pendukung untuk mengoreksi penyempurnaan perbandingan gabungan angin serta bahan bakar (air fuel ratio) sama sesuai dengan keadaan kerja mesin. Banyak bahan bakar (bensin) yang disemprotkan kudu sesuai dengan jumlah angin yang masuk kedalam silinder (AFR). Jadi tambah banyak angin yang masuk ke dalam silinder, maka bensin kudu jadi tambah banyak yang disemprotkan. Sekian sebalikya, jadi tambah sedikit angin yang masuk, maka volume bensin yang disemprotkan juga jadi tambah sedikit.

Contoh Sistim koreksi; selagi mesin dihidupkan dalam keadaan tetap dingin, ECM perlu input dari sensor ECT (engine cooling temperature) untuk memperkaya gabungan biar mesin gampang dihidupkan.

Artikel Cara Kerja EFI ini merupakan lanjutan dari posting sebelumnya, semoga bisa menambah wawasan Anda. :D