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Artikel sistem pemindah tenaga mobil

Sistem pemindah tenaga - System pemindah tenaga dapat juga dimaksud sistem pemindah daya  pada mobil (power train), adalah suatu mekanisme yang memindahkan tenaga dari mesin ke roda.

System pemindah tenaga menurut letak mesin mobil bisa dibedakan jadi empat jenis yakni :
1. Mesin depan penggerak belakang (front mesin rear drive).
2. Mesin depan penggerak depan (front mesin front drive).
3. Mesin belakang penggerak belakang (rear mesin rear drive).
4. Mesin depan penggerak empat roda (four wheel drive).

System pemindah tenaga yang ada dalam mesin terdiri jadi bagian-bagian yakni :

System pemindah tenaga yang ada dalam mesin terdiri jadi bagian-bagian yakni :  1. Sistem Pemindah Tenaga Kopling  Kopling mobil terdapat di antara mesin serta transmisi. Berperan menghubungkan serta melepas putaran dari mesin yang menuju transmisi. Diluar itu kopling juga dipakai untuk memperhalus perpindahan roda gigi transmisi.

1. Sistem Pemindah Tenaga Kopling

Kopling mobil terdapat di antara mesin serta transmisi. Berperan menghubungkan serta melepas putaran dari mesin yang menuju transmisi. Diluar itu kopling juga dipakai untuk memperhalus perpindahan roda gigi transmisi.
Dari uraian diatas untuk mengoptimalkan manfaat kopling, maka kopling mesti bisa penuhi kriteria seperti berikut :
  • Kopling mesti bisa menghubungkan mesin dengan transmisi dengan cara lembut.
  • Kopling mesti bisa membebaskan jalinan dari transmisi dengan prima serta cepat.
  • Pada waktu menghubungkan ke transmisi, sistem kopling mesti bisa memindahkan tenaga tiada berlangsung kurang slip.

2. Sistem Pemindah Tenaga Transmisi

Berperan untuk pengatur besar-kecilnya output tenaga mesin sesuai sama dengan keadaan perjalanan. Transmisi dipakai untuk merubah tenaga mesin jadi peristiwa sesuai sama dengan keadaan perjalanan maupun waktu kendaraan mesti jalan mundur.

Ada dua type transmisi yang dipakai pada kendaraan yakni transmisi manual serta transmisi automatis. Transmisi manual mengatur besar kecilnya tenaga yang keluar menuju roda memakai roda gigi transmisi. Sedang transmisi automatis dalam perpindahan tenaga satu diantaranya memakai planetary gear, torque converter, serta hydraulic control unit.

3. Propeller shaft

Propeller shaft pada kendaraan penggerak belakang berperan menyalurkan output tenaga dari transmisi menuju differential. Propeller shaft di buat dari baja yang mempunyai ketahanan pada daya bengkok ataupun puntiran. Propeller shaft ada dua jenis yakni :
  • 2-joint jenis propeller shaft, propeller yang cuma memakai u-joint pada ke-2 ujung propeller.
  • 3-joint jenis propeller shaft, propeller yang memakai u-joint pada ke-2 ujung propeller serta ada center bearing di dalam propeller.

Univesal joint atau u-joint dipakai untuk meredam pergantian pojok untuk memperhalus perpindahan tenaga dari transmisi ke differential. U-joint ada dua jenis :
a. U-joint jenis solid bearing cup
b. U-joint jenis shell bearing cup

4. Differential

Differential berperan memindahkan serta membagi tenaga mobil ke roda saat jalan lurus ataupun saat berbelok. Differential terdiri jadi dua sisi yakni final gear serta differential gear yang berperan seperti berikut :

a. Final gear, berperan jadi besar peristiwa yang masuk dalam differential. Final gear terbagi dalam drive pinion serta ring gear. Final gear ini memiliki dua jenis yakni :
  • Jenis hypoid bevel gear, yang mempunyai persinggunan roda gigi yang besar serta bekerja benar-benar halus. Jenis ini umum dipakai untuk kendaraan penggerak roda belakang.
  • Jenis helical gear, pada jenis ini pada ring gear serta drive pinion senantiasa bersinggungan pada lokasi yang sama. Helical gear bisa memindahkan peristiwa dengan benar-benar lembut dan getaran serta bunyi yang dihasilkan benar-benar halus. Jenis ini umum dipakai pada kendaraan penggerak roda depan.
b. Differential gear, berperan untuk membuahkan kecepatan putaran roda yang tidak sama waktu kendaraan bertukar arah. Differential gear terbagi dalam differential pinion serta side gear yang terkait dengan axle.

Differential tediri dari dua jenis yakni konvensional differential serta limited-slip differential. Perbedaan yang ada pada type differential bisa di ketahui dari konstruksi serta komponen yang dipakai pada differential. Komponen yang ada dalam differential konvensional terbagi dalam drive pinion, ring gear, differential pinion, differential case, differential pinion shaft, serta side gear.

Limited-slip differential adalah type differential yang berperan untuk kurangi kerugian tenaga pada roda disebabkan terjadinya wheel-spin. Limited-slip differential memiliki dua jenis karekteristik yakni Limited-slip differential peka dengan torsi serta Limited-slip differential peka dengan kecepatan. Menurut mekanismenya Limited-slip differential terdiri jadi tiga jenis, Limited-slip differential jenis Viscous, Limited-slip differential jenis Clutch serta Limited-slip differential jenis Gearing/full mechanical dimaksud juga torsen differential.

a. Limited-slip differential jenis viscous

Limited-slip differential jenis ini nyaman jika dipergunakan untuk harian, lantaran memakai fluida/oli. Limited-slip differential ini waktu satu diantara roda memperoleh keunggulan torsi, oli bakal mengental serta menyebabkan dampak mengunci pada roda itu hingga tenaga disalurkan ke roda yang lain. Kekurangan dari Limited-slip differential jenis viscous terdapat pada kekuatan untuk menahan slip yg tidak terlampau terbaik, serta bisa bisa saja berlangsung wheel-spin.

b. Limited-slip differential jenis clutch

Limited-slip differential jenis ini bereaksi pada torsi dari propeller shaft. Makin cepat rotasinya, maka makin keras penekanan kopling (clutch) pada differential. Kekuatan Limited-slip differential jenis clutch untuk menahan slip cukup terbaik, lantaran saat lakukan oversteer, system ini bekerja pada torsi serta kecepatan. Serta untuk drifting, Limited-slip differential yang direferensikan yaitu type ini lantaran kemampuannya untuk men-sense torsi serta kecepatan. Kelemahannya Limited-slip differential jenis ini terdapat pada perawatannya disebabkan kopling yang bakal cepat aus.

c. Limited-slip differential jenis gearing (torsen differential)

Limited-slip differential jenis ini benar-benar kuat untuk menahan slip serta bebas perawatan. Limited-slip differential jenis ini benar-benar tergantung pada torsi, bukan hanya kecepatan setiap as roda. Kelebihan Limited-slip differential jenis gearing yg tidak dipunyai oleh Limited-slip differential jenis clutch yaitu dapat digunakan untuk mengatur torsi pada as roda depan serta as roda belakang pada mobil-mobil 4WD.

Limited-slip differential jenis gear adalah kombinasi dua manfaat utama differential, yang ditujukan agar differential bisa bekerja dengan cara maksimal. Berbentuk penghantaran tenaga dari mesin menuju ke ke-2 axle, serta perbedaan putaran dari ke-2 axle waktu berlangsung perbedaan traksi. Untuk Kombinasi ini sangat mungkin penambahan jumlah torsi yang bisa di sampaikan oleh axle dalam seluruhnya keadaan traksi, tiada terlampau membatasi diferensiasi. Diferensiasi dibutuhkan untuk mengakomodasi kecepatan perputaran yang tidak sama pada axle kendaraan waktu berbelok serta perbedaan putaran antar roda.

Ciri-ciri yang ada dalam torsen diferensial lebih dibanding dengan ciri-ciri penyaluran tenaga yang ada pada differensial konvensional. Dan Axle penggerak pada differential konfensional berkenaan dengan bevel gear set yang dirancang untuk membagi torsi sama antar axle penggerak. Penyusunan ini tak lagi mensupport perbedaan torsi antar axle penggerak, serta untuk mengakibatkan kendala diferensiasi yang dihasilkan benar-benar kecil.

Untuk misal, apabila satu diantara roda kehilangan traksi, pemindahan torsi pada axle yang satunya tak optimal hingga berlangsung wheel-spin pada roda yang memperoleh traksi lebih kecil. Ini yaitu persoalan yang kerap berlangsung pada differential konvensional. Oleh karena itu torsen differential dipakai untuk meminimalisir terjadinya keunggulan torsi pada axle yang memperoleh traksi lebih kecil, serta menyalurkan torsi pada axle yang memperoleh traksi semakin besar sesuai sama dengan penyusunan invex gear.

Limited-slip differential jenis gear bisa membagi torsi keluaran yang tidak sama antar roda lantaran mempunyai susunan serta komponen yang tidak sama dengan differential konvensional. Limited-slip differential jenis gear tersusun dari komponen-komponen berbentuk ring gear, flanged body, side gear, pinion, serta cover yang tersusun.

Limited-slip differential jenis gear bekerja seperti diffefrential biasanya namun bisa mengunci bila torsi tidak seimbangan berlangsung, rasio torsi maksimum tidak seimbangan yang diputuskan oleh Torque Bias Ratio (TBR). Saat Torsen memiliki perbandingan TBR 3 : 1, bermakna bahwasanya satu segi differential memperoleh torsi hingga 75% sesaat segi lain cuma memperoleh torsi 25% dari torsi diaplikasikan. Waktu keadaan percepatan traksi berbeda, axle yang memperoleh traksi semakin besar bakal memperoleh torsi yang semakin besar hingga tak lagi berlangsung wheel-spin.

Saat perbedaan traksi melebihi TBR, segi axle yang lebih lambat bakal terima torsi dari segi axle yang lebih cepat dikalikan dengan TBR, torsi penambahan yang tersisa disalurkan menuju axle yang lebih cepat dari segi differential (Wikipedia, 2010). Pada gambar dibawah ini dipertunjukkan kerja torsen differential waktu ke-2 axle memperoleh traksi yang sama serta waktu ke-2 axle memperoleh traksi yang tidak sama.

5. Poros penggerak roda

Poros penggerak roda berperan untuk melanjutkan putaran serta tenaga dari differential menuju ke roda. Poros penggerak roda disamping melanjutkan tenaga, juga berperan untuk menanggung beban kendaraan. Ada dua type utama poros penggerak roda yakni poros menanggung serta poros melayang.
a. Poros jenis menanggung yakni jenis full floating, jenis semi- floating, serta jenis ¾ floating.
1) Jenis full floating
Konstruksi poros roda jenis ini berbentuk bearing teretak di antara axle housing serta wheel hub. Lantaran beban seluruh kendaraan dipikul oleh axle housing pada jenis ini, maka axle cuma dibutuhkan untuk memutarkan roda. Poros penggerak jenis full floating ini umum dipakai pada kendaraan berat, lantaran poros roda tak memperoleh beban yang terlalu berlebih.
2) Jenis semi floating
Poros penggerak jenis ini bearing terpasang pada axle housing serta poros axle serta roda terpasang segera pada poros. Poros diperlukan untuk menyangga semua berat kendaraan serta juga beban kendaraan waktu berbelok. Poros penggerak jenis ini konstruksinya simpel hingga banyak dipakai pada kendaraan penumpang.
3) Jenis ¾ floating
Pada jenis ini pada axle housing serta wheel hub dipasang menyatu serta roda terpasang segera pada poros. Beberapa besar berat kendaraan ditahan oleh housing terkecuali waktu belok ada beban pada poros axle.

b. Poros jenis melayang yakni constant velocity joint (cv joint)

Constant velocity joint atau kerap dimaksud CV joint adalah poros yang dipakai untuk mentransfer daya dari differential menuju roda yang bisa dibelokan dengan pojok yang fleksibel dengan kecepatan konstan. CV joint diperlukan untuk mengarahkan roda waktu suspensi bergerak ke atas serta ke bawah. CV Joint umum diterapkan pada kendaraan dengan penggerak roda depan (front wheel drive), 4 wheel drive, serta penggerak roda belakang (rear wheel drive) dengan suspensi independent.

Ada dua type CV Joint yang umum dipakai pada kendaraan, yakni :

a. CV Joint type birfield

CV Joint yang ada pada gambar dibawah ini adalah CV Joint type birfield. CV Joint type ini komponen utama yang dipakai yaitu roller ball sejumlah enam, cage untuk pembatas pergeseran roller ball, serta inner race untuk tempat roller ball berputar. Susunan komponen yang ada pada CV Joint.

b. CV Joint type tripod

CV joint yang ada pada gambar dibawah ini adalah CV Joint type Tripod. CV Joint type ini memiliki komponen utama berbentuk roller groove untuk rumah roller, snap ring untuk pengunci roller, roller untuk pemutar serta penentu belokan, serta spider untuk tempat roller berputar. Susunan komponen CV Joint type Tripod.