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Konsep Motor Listrik Dalam pembuatan mobil listrik

Pengertian Motor Listrik

Peran Motor Listrik Dalam pembuatan mobil listrik, merupakan komponen vital yang berperan untuk sbg mesin penggerak kendaraan. Motor yaitu suatu komponen yang terbagi dalam kumparan serta magnet, makin besar magnet nya maka bakal makin cepat juga kumparan itu berputar.

Pengertian umum Motor listrik adalah  alat untuk merubah daya listrik jadi daya mekanik. Alat yang berperan sebaliknya, merubah daya mekanik jadi daya listrik dimaksud generator atau dinamo.
Pengertian umum Motor listrik adalah  alat untuk merubah daya listrik jadi daya mekanik. Alat yang berperan sebaliknya, merubah daya mekanik jadi daya listrik dimaksud generator atau dinamo.

Jenis atau type motor listrik saat ini benar-benar bermacam, tetapi dari demikian banyak jenis yang ada di market, sejatinya motor listrik cuma mempunyai 2 komponen utama, yakni stator serta rotor. Stator yaitu sisi motor listrik yang diam serta rotor yaitu sisi motor listrik yang bergerak (berputar). Sedang menurut sumber tegangan, motor listrik di untuk jadi 2 lagi, yakni motor listrik AC (Alternating Current) serta motor listrik DC (Direct Current).

Untuk penjelasan mendalam, bahwasannya, dari ke-2 type motor itu (AC serta DC) dibagi lagi jadi sebagian varian serta susunan, lebih jelasnya tengok detil gambar dibawah ini :

Klasifikasi Motor Listrik


1. Motor Listrik AC (Alternating Current)

Motor listrik AC yaitu suatu motor yang merubah arus listrik jadi daya gerak ataupun mekanik dari pada rotor yang ada di dalamnya. Motor listrik AC tak dipengaruhi kutub positif ataupun negatif, serta bersumber tenaga listrik.

sedang menurut sumber daya nya, motor listrik AC dibedakan jadi 2, yakni sumber daya sinkron serta sumber daya induksi

A. Sumber daya sinkron
Motor yang memakai sumber daya sinkron, dapat juga dikatakan sebagai motor serempak. Dimaksud motor sinkron lantaran, putaran motor sama juga dengan putaran fluk magnet, sesuai sama dengan persamaan :

Fe = nr. P/120

Info :
nr = kecepatan putar rotor = kecepatan medan magnet (rpm)
Fe = Frekuensi Listrik (50 Hz - 60Hz)
P = Jumlah kutub

note : rotor yang ada didalam motor daya sinkron, tak bisa berputar walau telah dikaitkan dengan sumber tegangan listrik, umumnya mesti memakai alat bantu mesin lain, untuk penyebab torsi awal.


Prinsip atau cara kerja motor sinkron

Di sini saya bakal menuturkan prinsipi kerja motor sinkron dengan cara simpel serta gampang dipahami serta sesuai sama dengan buku yang dikarang oleh Ismail Muchsin., ST. MT. Menurut buku itu, prinsip kerja motor sinkron adalah, alur listrik yang mengalir dari sumber segera menuju medan magnetomoghen yang ada didalam motor. Pada mesin jenis ini, medan magnet di tempatkan pada stator (dimaksud generator kutub eksternal/external pole generator), tetapi bersamaan perubahan jenis jenis ini mulai ditinggalkan lantaran dapat bikin slip atau rusaknya pada motor serta persoalan pada pembangkitan daya tinggi.

Pada mesin motor AC sinkron, pada akhirnya ditemukan langkah baru yakni, medan magnet di tempatkan pada rotor (internal pole generator) serta tegangan AC dibangkitkan pada rangkaian stator. Tegangan yang dihasilkan bakal membuat sinusoidal pada mesin sinkron kutub internal pada tiga kumparan stator yang diset sedemikian rupa serta membuat pojok 120° derajat.

B. Sumber daya induksi
Motor listrik yang memakai sumber daya induksi ini paling banyak di pakai serta dikembangkan. Penamaanya datang dari kenyataan bahwasanya motor ini bekerja menurut induksi medan magnet stator ke statornya, di mana arus motor ini bukan hanya datang dari sumber tegangan spesifik, namun adalah arus yang terinduksi untuk disebabkan ada perbedaan relatif pada putaran rotor dengan medan putar (rotating magnetic field) yang dihasilkan oleh arus stator.

Prinsip kerja motor AC induksi

Pada intinya motor induksi ini bekerja pada medan elektromagnetik dari kumparan stator pada kumparan rotor. Lantaran kumparan stator adalah rangkaian tertutup, maka bakal mengalir arus listrik di kumparan stator, serta ini bakal menyebabkan style Lorentz yang condong bakal menggerakan kumparan rotor sesuai sama arah style Lorentz itu.

Menurut skema diagram di atas, Motor Induksi di untuk lagi jadi 2 yakni Motor 1 fasa serta 3 fasa.

B1. Satu Fasa (1-fasa)
Pada intinya sih sama, pada motor 1 fasa dengan motor 2 fasa. yg tidak simetris lantaran pada kumparan statornya di buat dua kumparan (yakni kumparan bantu serta kumparan utama) yang memiliki perbedaan dengan cara listrik di mana pada masing-masing kumparannya tak memiliki nilai impedansi yang sama serta biasanya motor bekerja dengan satu kumparan stator (kumparan utama). Pada prinsipnya, motor 1 fasa ini tak bekerja menurut style Lorentz tetapi bekerja menurut style medan maju dangaya medan mundur. Bila satu diantara medan di perbesar, maka rotor bakal berputar sesuai sama dengan arah medan yang diperbesar itu. Penjelasan ini bisa pelajari teori rotasi medan ganda.

B2. Tiga Fasa (3-fasa)
Sumber 3-fase ini umumnya dipakai oleh motor induksi 3 fase. Dan Motor induksi 3 fase ini mempunyai kumparan 3-fase yang terpisah antar satu sama lainya sejarak 1200 listrik yang dialiri oleh arus listrik 3-fase yang tidak sama fase 1200 listrik antar fasenya, hingga situasi ini bakal membuahkan resultan fluksmagnet yang berputar seperti kutup magnet aktual yang berputar dengan cara mekanik. Wujud deskripsi simpel jalinan kumparan motor induksi 3-fase dengan dua kutup stator.

2. Motor Listrik DC (Direct Current)

Motor listrik DC yaitu motor yang penggeraknya menurut sumber tegangan DC (Direct Current) seperti battery serta accu. Tetapi pada prinsipnya tetap sama juga dengan motor AC.

sedang menurut sumber daya nya, motor listrik DC dibedakan jadi 2, yakni sumber daya terpisah/Separately Excited serta sumber daya sendiri/Self Excited.

A. Sumber daya terpisah (Separately Excited)
Yaitu type motor DC yang sumber arus medan disupply dari sumber terpisah, hingga motor listrik DC ini dimaksud motor DC sumber daya terpisah (separately excited).

B. Sumber daya sendiri (Self Excited)
Yaitu type motor DC yang sumber arus medan disupply dari sumberyang sama juga dengan kumparan motor listrik, hingga motor listrik DC ini dimaksud motor DC sumber dayasendiri (self excited).

3 type sumber daya sendiri (self excited) berdasakan konfigurasi supplay medan pada kumparan motor

1. Motor DC shunt
Pada motor DC shunt gulungan medan (medan shunt) disambungkan dengan cara paralel dengan gulungan motor listrik. Oleh karenanya keseluruhan arus dalam jalur adalah penjumlahan arus medan serta arus dinamo.

2. Motor DC seri
Pada motor DC seri, gulungan medan (medan shunt) dikaitkan dengan cara seri dengan gulungan kumparan motor (A). Oleh karenanya, arus medan sama juga dengan arus dinamo.

3. Motor DC kompon/gabung
Motor Kompon DC adalah paduan motor seri serta shunt. Pada motor kompon, gulungan medan (medan shunt) dikaitkan dengan cara paralel serta seri dengan gulungan motor listrik. Hingga, motor kompon mempunyai torque penyalaan awal yang bagus serta kecepatan yang stabil.
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