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Jenis dan Fungsi Piston

Seher


Suatu piston yaitu komponen dari mesin reciprocating, reciprocating pompa, kompresor gas serta silinder pneumatik, pada mekanisme sama yang lain. Ini yaitu komponen bergerak yang dikandung oleh silinder serta di buat kedap gas oleh cincin piston. Dalam suatu mesin, maksudnya yaitu untuk mentransfer kemampuan dari perluasan gas dalam silinder ke poros engkol lewat batang piston serta/atau batang penghubung. Pada pompa, manfaat di balik serta kemampuan ditransfer dari poros engkol ke piston untuk maksud penekanan atau mendepak cairan dalam silinder. Pada sebagian mesin, piston juga melakukan tindakan untuk katup dengan tutup serta membuka pelabuhan di dinding silinder.
Jenis dan Fungsi Piston

Mesin piston

Mesin pembakaran internal


Piston dari mesin pembakaran internal ditindaklanjuti oleh desakan gas pembakaran yang berkembang di area ruang bakar dibagian atas silinder. Style ini lalu melakukan tindakan ke bawah lewat batang penghubung serta ke crankshaft. Batang penghubung menempel pada piston dengan pin berputar Gudgeon (AS : pergelangan pin). Pin ini dipasang dalam piston : tak seperti mesin uap, tak ada batang piston atau judul bab (terkecuali besar dua stroke mesin).

Pin itu sendiri yaitu dari baja keras serta terus dalam piston, namun bebas bergerak dalam batang penghubung. Sebagian design memakai 'sepenuhnya mengambang' design yang longgar pada ke-2 komponen. Seluruhnya pin mesti dihindari dari bergerak ke samping serta ujung pin menggali ke dinding silinder, umumnya dengan circlips.

Penyegelan Gas dicapai dengan memakai ring piston. Ini yaitu beberapa ring besi yang sempit, cocok longgar dalam alur di piston, pas dibawah ring. ring itu dibagi pada titik di pinggir, yang sangat mungkin mereka untuk menghimpit silinder dengan desakan pegas sinar. Dua type cincin yang dipakai : ring atas mempunyai muka yang solid serta berikan penyegelan gas ; ring yang lebih rendah mempunyai pinggir sempit serta profil berupa U, untuk melakukan tindakan untuk pencakar minyak. Terdapat beberapa feature design eksklusif serta detil berkenaan dengan ring piston.

Pistons dilemparkan dari gabungan aluminium. Untuk kemampuan yang lebih terbaik serta usia kelelahan, sebagian piston racing bisa ditempa untuk ubahnya. Piston awal yaitu dari besi cor, namun ada faedah yang pasti untuk mesin balancing bila gabungan mudah bisa dipakai. Untuk membuahkan piston yang dapat bertahan hidup pada suhu mesin pembakaran, maka butuh untuk meningkatkan gabungan baru seperti gabungan Y serta Hiduminium, spesial untuk dipakai untuk piston.

Sebagian mesin gas awal catatan 1 mempunyai silinder double-acting, namun bila tak efisien seluruhnya piston mesin pembakaran internal yaitu single-acting. Sepanjang Perang Dunia II, subwoofer AS Pompano catatan 2 dilengkapi dengan prototipe dari HOR infamously dihandalkan double-acting mesin diesel dua-stroke. Walau kompak, untuk dipakai dalam subwoofer sempit, design ini mesin itu tak terulang.

Piston trunk

Batang piston untuk mesin diesel moderen


Piston batang panjang, relatif pada diameter mereka. Mereka melakukan tindakan untuk piston serta juga untuk judul bab silinder. Untuk batang penghubung miring untuk sisi dari perputaran, ada juga kemampuan samping yang bereaksi di selama segi piston pada dinding silinder. Suatu piston yang lebih panjang menolong untuk mensupport hal semacam ini.

Piston Trunk sudah design umum dari piston dari hari-hari awal mesin pembakaran internal reciprocating. Mereka dipakai untuk bensin serta mesin diesel, walau mesin kecepatan tinggi saat ini sudah mengambil mudah sandal berat piston.

Ciri-ciri yang paling piston batang, terutama untuk mesin diesel, yaitu bahwasanya mereka mempunyai alur untuk ring oli bawah pin Gudgeon, tidak cuma cincin pada pin Gudgeon serta mahkota.

Nama 'batang piston' datang dari 'mesin trunk', design awal mesin uap kelautan. Untuk bikin ini lebih kompak, mereka hindari mesin uap yang umum batang piston serta judul bab yang terpisah serta bukan hanya design mesin pertama untuk meletakkan pin Gudgeon segera dalam piston. Bila piston mesin trunk ini tak serupa dengan piston batang : mereka yaitu diameter benar-benar besar serta double-acting. 'Batang' mereka yaitu silinder sempit diletakkan dipasang di dalam piston ini.

Crosshead pistons


Besar Mesin diesel lambat kecepatan barangkali membutuhkan support penambahan untuk pasukan samping pada piston. Mesin ini umumnya memakai piston judul bab. Piston utama mempunyai batang piston besar memanjang ke bawah dari piston untuk apa yang efisien ke-2 piston berdiameter kecil. Piston utama bertanggungjawab untuk menyegel gas serta membawa cincin piston. Piston yang lebih kecil yaitu murni tips mekanik. Ini jalan dalam silinder kecil untuk tips batang serta juga membawa pin Gudgeon.

Lantaran berat penambahan dari piston ini, mereka tak dipakai untuk mesin berkecepatan tinggi.



Piston Slipper


Suatu piston Slipper yaitu piston untuk mesin bensin yang sudah menyusut dalam ukuran serta berat tubuh sebanyak-banyaknya. Dalam masalah ekstrim, mereka dikurangi jadi mahkota piston, support untuk ring piston, serta cuma cukup rok piston yang tersisa untuk meninggalkan dua tanah hingga untuk menghentikan piston goyang didalam lubang. Segi rok piston seputar pin Gudgeon dikurangi dari dinding silinder. Maksudnya yaitu beberapa untuk kurangi massa reciprocating, hingga membuatnya lebih gampang untuk menyeimbangkan mesin hingga sangat mungkin kecepatan tinggi. Faedah sekunder barangkali terdapat banyak pengurangan gesekan dengan dinding silinder, tetapi lantaran beberapa besar ini yaitu lantaran bagian-bagian piston yang tertinggal, faedah yang keci

Piston deflektor

Dua-stroke piston deflektor


Piston deflektor dipakai dalam mesin dua-stroke dengan kompresi crankcase, dimana aliran gas dalam silinder mesti hati-hati diarahkan dalam rencana berikan pemulungan efektif. Dengan lintas pemulungan, transfer (inlet ke silinder) serta exhaust port ada di segera menghadap segi dinding silinder. Untuk menghindar kombinasi yang masuk melalui segera di seberang dari satu pelabuhan ke yang lain, piston mempunyai mengangkat tulang rusuk pada crown. Hal semacam ini ditujukan untuk membelokkan kombinasi yang masuk ke atas, seputar area pembakaran. Banyak usaha, serta beragam design piston crown, pergi ke meningkatkan ditingkatkan pemulungan. Mahkota di kembangkan dari tulang rusuk simpel untuk benjolan asimetris besar, umumnya dengan muka curam di segi inlet serta kurva lembut di knalpot. Walau sekian, lintas pemulungan tak sempat sama efektifnya seperti yang diinginkan. Umumnya mesin waktu ini memakai Schnuerle port untuk ubahnya. Ini meletakkan sepasang transfer pelabuhan di segi silinder serta mendorong aliran gas untuk berputar di seputar sumbu vertikal, bukan hanya sumbu horisontal.

Mesin uap


Cast-besi mesin uap piston, ring piston dengan logam pegas pada dinding silinder.

Mesin uap umumnya double-acting (yakni desakan uap melakukan tindakan dengan cara bertukaran pada tiap-tiap segi dari piston) serta penerimaan serta pelepasan uap dikendalikan oleh katup slide, katup piston atau katup si kecil. Mengakibatkan, piston mesin uap nyaris senantiasa cakram relatif tidak tebal : diameter mereka sekian kali ketebalan mereka. (Satu pengecualian yaitu mesin piston batang, berupa seperti yang ada di mesin pembakaran internal moderen.)

Awal (c. 1830) piston untuk mesin beam. Piston seal di buat oleh putaran dibungkus tali.

  • pompa
  • Pompa piston bisa dipakai untuk memindahkan cairan atau kompres gas.
  • untuk cairan
  • untuk gas
  • meriam Air

Ada dua type spesial dari piston yang dipakai dalam meriam air : piston toleransi dekat serta piston ganda. Sesaat di piston toleransi dekat, O-ring berperan untuk katup, O-ring tak dipakai dalam type piston ganda.

Piston Close-toleransi mempunyai beberapa kekurangan : Mereka bisa membengkak serta tongkat, karakter mereka beralih lantaran pergantian atmosfer, serta mereka pas erat didalam silinder dengan toleransi dekat. Backlash bisa menyedot sebagian materi bin ke dalam katup yang bisa mengakibatkan piston untuk melekat.

Feature umum konstruksi piston ganda : Mereka tak dapat membengkak serta tongkat, mereka pas longgar dalam silinder (tak ada toleransi ketat), pergantian atmosfer tak memengaruhi mereka, serta bahan asing yang masuk silinder tak mengakibatkan lengket.
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