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Cara Kerja Mesin Melalui Kombinasi Bensin-Udara


 Teknovanza.com - Mesin pembakaran dalaman bensin digerakkan pada kombinasi bensin serta angin. Kombinasi ideal yaitu 14. 7

 Teknovanza.com - Mesin pembakaran dalaman bensin digerakkan pada kombinasi bensin serta angin. Kombinasi ideal yaitu 14. 7 bahagian angin untuk satu bahagian bensin (mengikut berat.) Oleh kerana gas yang lebih berat dari pada angin, hal ini tentang banyak seluruh angin serta sedikit kecil gas. Satu sebahagian dari pada gas yang betul-betul menguap ke 14. 7 bahagian angin bisa membuahkan kemampuan yang mengagumkan jika dinyalakan didalam mesin mobil kita.

Selanjutnya mari kita ketahui cara mesin modern bisa membuat roda putar.


Angin masuk mesin lewat pembersih udara serta hasil untuk plat throttle/valve. Cara Anda mengontrol jumlah angin yang lewat plat throttle serta ke mesin dengan mengunakan pedal gas. Ia kemudiannya diedarkan lewat serangkaian cuplikan yang disebut sebagai intake manifold, untuk tiap-tiap silinder. Pada beberapa titik selepas udara bersih, tergantung dari mesin, bahan api ditambah pada aliran angin sama halnya dengan sistem suntikan bahan api atau mungkin, dalam type kenderaan yang lebih tua, dengan karburator.

Jika bahanbakar itu menguap ke aliran angin, kombinasi itu ditarik ke tiap-tiap silinder juga sebagai silinder yang berawal strok pengambilan tersebut (asupan penekanannya). Jika piston hingga ke bahagian bawah silinder, katup intake ditutup serta piston bergerak ke atas didalam silinder memampatkan charge. Jika piston mencapai bagian atas, busi menyalakan kombinasi bahan bakar-udara mengakibatkan ekspansi gas yang kuat, yang mendorong piston kembali ke bawah dengan daya yang kuat pada poros engkol, sama dengan basikal / sepeda mendorong pada pedal untuk maju.

Mari kita ketahui lebih banyak dari proses ini.

Jenis mesin

Sekarang ini Kebanyakan mesin kendaraan bermotor yaitu empat-stroke, percikan penyalaan mesin pembakaran di dalam. Kecuali seperti diesel serta mesin rotary akan tidak termasuk untuk artikel ini.

Pengaturan Silinder biasa
Ada banyak type mesin yang di kenal pasti oleh bilangan silinder serta langkah silinder ditempatkan. Kenderaan bermotor bakal memiliki 3 sampai 12 silinder yang disusun dalam blok mesin dalam beberapa konfigurasi. Yang umum diperlihatkan di samping kiri. Dalam mesin silinder mereka disusun dalam satu baris. Mesin 3 - 6 silinder umumnya memakai sistem pengtauran ini. V dalam tanda kurung perkiraan memakai dua silinder side-by-side serta umumnya dipakai dalam V-6 sampai V-12 konfigurasi. Mesin Flat atau datar memakai dua bank lawan silinder serta kurang umum dari pada yang lain dua reka bentuk. Tersebut dipakai dalam mesin dari Subaru serta Porsche dalam 4 serta 6 perkiraan silinder serta juga di kumbang VW lama dengan 4 silinder. Mesin Flat juga dipakai dalam sebagian Ferrari dengan mengunakan 12 silinder

Blok mesin terbuat dari cor besi atau aluminium.


Piston dan Connecting Rod

Tiap-tiap silinder berisi piston yang bergerak atas serta bawah dalam lubang silinder. Seluruhnya piston dalam mesin yang disambungkan lewat batang yang menghubungkan individu pada "crankshaft" aci engkol sama.

Crankshaft

Crankshaft ini terdapat dibawah silinder pada mesin in-line, di pangkal V pada mesin jenis-V serta pada bank silinder pada mesin yang rata. Jika piston bergerak ke atas serta ke bawah, mereka berpaling poros engkol cuma sukai kaki anda memompa naik dan turun untuk menghidupkan engkol yang disambungkan ke pedal basikal.

Umum Silinder HeadA kepala silinder diperketatkan ke atas tiap-tiap silinder untuk mengelak silinder individu serta mengandungi sistem pembakaran yang berlaku didalam silinder. Umumnya kepala silinder diperbuat dari pada aluminium cast atau mungkin besi tuangkan. Kepala silinder mengandungi sedikitnya satu injap pengambilan serta injap ekzos satu untuk tiap-tiap silinder. Ini membolehkan kombinasi udara-bahan api masuk ke silinder serta gas ekzos dibakar untuk keluar dari silinder. Mesin memiliki sedikitnya dua injap tiap-tiap silinder, satu injap pengambilan serta injap ekzos satu. Banyak mesin yang lebih baru memakai pelbagai pengambilan serta ekzos injap tiap-tiap silinder untuk menambah kuasa mesin serta kecekapan. Mesin terkadang diberi nama untuk bilangan injap yang mereka ada seperti " 24 Valve V6 " yang tunjukkan mesin V-6 dengan empat injap tiap-tiap silinder. Reka bentuk mesin moden bisa memakai mana-mana saja dari 2 sampai 5 injap tiap-tiap silinder.

Camshaft

Injap di buka serta ditutup lewat camshaft. Camshaft yaitu satu poros berputar yang memiliki lobus individu untuk tiap-tiap injap. Lobus yaitu " bump " pada satu bahagian aci yang menampik pada pengangkat injap bergerak naik serta turun. Jika lobus menampik pada pengangkat itu, pengangkat yang selanjutnya menampik injap terbuka. Jika lobus berputar dari pengangkat, injap ditutup oleh pegas yang menempel pada injap. Konfigurasi umum yaitu untuk memiliki satu camshaft terdapat dalam blok mesin dengan lifters menyambung ke injap lewat satu siri jalinan. Camshaft harus disinkronkan dengan aci /poros engkol agar camshaft bikin satu revolusi untuk tiap-tiap dua revolusi crankshaft. Dalam umumnya mesin, ini dikerjakan oleh " Timing Chain " (persis seperti rantai basikal) yang menghubungkan camshaft dengan poros engkol. Mesin yang lebih baru memiliki camshaft yang terdapat di kepala silinder selalu diatas injap. Reka bentuk atau desain ini terbilang efisien namun lebih mahal untuk keluarkan serta membutuhkan pelbagai camshafts di Flat serta mesin V-jenis. Ia juga membutuhkan waktu lebih lama rantai atau timing belt yang gampang untuk menggunakan setiap saat. Sesetengah mesin memiliki dua camshaft pada tiap-tiap kepala, satu untuk injap pengambilan serta satu untuk injap ekzos. Mesin di namai Double Overhead Camshaft (DOHC) Mesin pada saat type yang lain di panggil Bujang Camshaft overhed (SOHC) Mesin. Mesin mengunakan camshaft didalam blok di panggil overhed Valve (OHV) Mesin.

DOHC 24 Valve V6 "


Cara Kerja Mesin

Oleh kerana sistem yang sama berlaku didalam tiap-tiap silinder, kita bakal lihat pada satu silinder untuk lihat bagaimana sistem kerja-kerja empat stroke.

Style 4 tak yaitu Pengambilan, Mampatan, Kuasa serta Ekzos. Piston bergerak ke bawah pada stroke Intake, hingga pada stroke kompresi, lalu turun pada strok power serta hingga pada stroke ekzos itu.

Jalan nya Mesin

Intake

Jika piston ke bawah berawal pada stroke Intake, injap pengambilan terbuka serta kombinasi bahan bakar-udara ditarik ke silinder (sama dengan melukis kembali pelocok pada jarum hipodermik untuk membolehkan cairan yang bakal ditarik)
Jika piston hingga ke bahagian bawah lejang isap, injap ditutup, menjebak kombinasi antara udara dan bahan bakar dalam silinder.

Kompresi

Piston bergerak ke atas serta memampatkan "kompresi" kombinasi bahan bakar angin terjebak yang dibawa oleh strok intake. Jumlah yang kombinasi dimampatkan ditetapkan oleh rasio kompresi mesin. Rasio kompresi mesin sekitar 8 : 1 hingga 10 : 1.
Ini berarti jika piston hingga ke atas silinder, kombinasi udara-bahan api diperah pada kurang lebih satu per sepuluh dari pada jumlah aslinya.

Daya

Busi, mengakibatkan kombinasi udara-bahan bakar yang dimampatkan/kompresi yang membuahkan pengembangan yang bertenaga uap. Sistem pembakaran menampik piston ke bawah silinder dengan daya yang kuat berpindah crankshaft untuk memberi kuasa untuk menggerakkan kenderaan. Tiap-tiap pembakaran piston pada saat yang berbeza, yang ditetapkan dengan perintah mesin tembakan. Jika poros engkol melengkapkan dua revolusi, tiap-tiap silinder didalam mesin bakal sudah lewat satu power strok.

ekzos /exhaust

Dengan piston di bahagian bawah silinder, injap ekzos bakal terbuka untuk membolehkan gas ekzos dibakar untuk diusir ke system ekzos. Mulai sejak silinder mengandungi desakan demikian banyak, jika injap di buka, gas diusir dengan tenaga ganas (iaitu kenapa kenderaan tanpa ada selendang berbunyi demikian kuat.) piston bergerak hingga bahagian atas silinder menampik seluruhnya ekzos keluar sebelum saat tutup injap ekzos juga sebagai persediaan untuk memulakan sistem empat pukulan ke atas lagi.

System oiling

Minyak yaitu darah mesin, atau sumber kehidupan. Mesin jalan tanpa ada minyak bakal berjalan kurang lebih pada saat manusia tanpa ada darah. Minyak dipompa dibawah desakan untuk seluruhnya bahagian yang bergerak mesin dengan pompa minyak. Pompa minyak dipasang di bahagian bawah mesin dalam periuk minyak serta disambungkan dengan gear pada sama ada aci engkol atau mungkin poros. Dengan langkah tersebut, jika mesin itu membelok, pompa minyak itu memompa. Ada satu sensor desakan minyak berhampiran pompa minyak yang memonitor desakan serta menghantar info ini pada lampu atau pengukur di dasbor. Jika anda menghidupkan kunci, namun sebelum saat mesin mobil dihidupkan, sinar minyak pasti menyala bila tak ada desakan atau tekanan minyak lagi, namun juga menunjukan bahawa system berfungsi.

Mesin Pendingin

Mesin pembakaran dalaman harus mengekalkan suhu operasi yang stabil, tak terlampau panas serta tak terlampau sejuk. Dengan beberapa besar panas yang dihasilkan dari pada sistem pembakaran, bila mesin itu tak memiliki fungsi untuk mendinginkan sendiri, ia mempercepat kerusakan. Bahagian-bahagian mesin utama bisa warp mengakibatkan minyak serta kebocoran air dan minyak bakal mendidih sia-sia.

Mesin Balance

4 roda tenaga mesin silinder membuahkan kekuasaan stroke tiap-tiap revolusi crankshaft, 8 silinder, tiap-tiap revolusi kuartal. Ini berarti V8 yang bakal memadamkan jalan dari pada 4 Untuk melindungi denyutan pembakaran dari menimbulkan getaran, roda pada belakang poros engkol. Pada mobil transmisi standard,flywheel yaitu cakera besi berat yang berperan juga sebagai sebahagian dari sistem kopling.

Balance Aci "poros" sebagian dari mesin memiliki gerakan goyang bentuk yang membuahkan getaran yang menyebalkan pada saat jalan. Untuk melawannya, disarankan memakai satu atau mungkin lebih poros keseimbangan. Keseimbangan poros yaitu berat poros yang jalan lewat selari mesin untuk crankshaft. Aci ini memiliki berat yang besar, pada saat berputar, mengimbangi gerakan goyang mesin dengan wujudkan gerakan goyang bertentangan dengan mereka sendiri.