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Penyebab Sistem Kelistrikan Mobil Mati


Kalau berbicara soal sistem kelistrikan mobil, sebagian dari kita mungkin sudah menyerah duluan sebelum berbuat sesuatu. Tapi ada baiknya kita mengetahui Cara Menganalisa Kerusakan Komponen Kelistrikan Mobil agar mengetahui sumber permasalahan sekiranya berlaku pada sistem kendaraan kita

Cara Menganalisa Gangguan Sistem kelistrikan mobil



Cara memperbaiki sistem kelistrikan mobil

Kalau berbicara soal sistem kelistrikan mobil, sebagian dari kita mungkin sudah menyerah duluan sebelum berbuat sesuatu. Tapi ada baiknya kita mengetahui Cara Menganalisa Kerusakan Komponen Kelistrikan Mobil agar mengetahui sumber permasalahan sekiranya berlaku pada sistem kendaraan kita. Di Blog Otomotif Teknovanza, Kali ini akan mengulas lagi mengenai pentingnya kelistrikan mobil dan juga tips cara menganalisanya. Melalui postingan artikel ini semoga bisa membantu Anda untuk mengcek serta mengatatasinya sendiri.

Sistem Kelistrikan Mobil Dan Fungsinya


Sebagian dari beberapa komponen sistem kelistrikan mobil mungkin memang tidak bisa untuk diperbaiki, terutama model mobil antik perlu di perlukan antisipasi dengan mengetahui umur komponen kelistrikan. Dengan demikian kita sydah siap terlebih dahulu untuk menggantinya sebelum ada masalah atau mati.

Komponen sumber kelistrikan mobil yang utama diantaranya meliputi:

AKI MOBIL


Komponen Sistem kelistrikan yang paling utama yaitu aki mobil, secara garis besar umur aki bisa sampai 3 th bila kita lakukan perawatan yang baik dan benar. Tapi sering kali hanya bertahan kurang dari 1 tahun. Aki mobil cepat mati biasanya hanya dikarenakan perawatan aki yang kurang baik sehingga umurnya pendek.

Penyebab aki mobil cepat mati :

  1. Mobil biasanya sering di parkir dibawah panas matahari. Karena suhu panas dari sinar matahari akan membuat cairan elektrolit di dalam aki lebih cepat menguap dan mengurangi daya dari aki tersebut.
  2. Hal kedua yaitu mobil jarang di gunakan dalam jangka waktu yang lama dan tanpa di lakukanya pemanasan mesin. Perlakukan pemanasan mesin bertujuan untuk mengisi aki kembali atau recharge dan juga untuk melakukan sirkulasi oli yang terdapat dalam mesin.
  3. Terakhir adalah karena pemasangan aksesoris yang tidak standar untuk mobil contohnya; head lamp serta pemasangan audio mobil berlayar besar dan berdaya tinggi.

Untuk standar aki yang bagus yakni memiliki tegangan 12,6 volt "mobil keluaran lama" sehingga jika kurang dari 12 volt aki tersebut mengalami kerusakan sehinga tidak mampu menyimpan tegangan listrik secara maksimal. Agar umurnya bisa bertahan lama maka sangat penting untuk menjaga air aki berada pada batas minimal dan batas atas, seperti yang sudah di rekomendasikan melalui garis. Sebaiknya Anda juga harus menyediakan cadangan air aki yang berwarna merah untuk kondisi mesin yang panas dan air bersih saat kondisi mesin mobil dingin.

PLATINA atau CDI


Mungkin Anda juga tahu bahwa platina erat sekali hubungannya dengan sistem pengapian mobil. Platina atau CDI ini memerlukan pergantian setiap jarak tempuh 10.000 km. Untuk cara mengetahui kondisi platina yang masih bagus atau sudah tidak bisa dipakai dapat Anda lihat dengan kasat mata. Dalam artian jika kondisi kontak poin pada CDI masih tebal, itu berarti masih bisa di gunakan.

Sedang cara membersihkan platina agar bisa di pakai lagi yakni hanya dengan mengosok mengunakan amplas hingga rata dan bersih. Biasanya platina gosong disebabkan karena umur pemakaian atau loncatan bunga api yang terlalu besar, ini sering terjadi bila kita memakai koil berdaya tinggi dan juga koil racing. Jadi sebaiknya kita harus menyesuaikan penggunaan komponen sitem kelistrikan, khususnya untuk type mobil tua.

Prinsip CDI ini yakni; memanfaatkan sebuah sensor yang akan aktif apabila di trigger atau di pantik, selanjutnya sensor akan aktif oleh dadu yang ada di tengah delko mobil (cdi rakitan, menggunakan system pulser). Sedangkan untuk jenis sensor yang sering digunakan adalah sensor Hall/Sensor Camshaft. Cara kerja dari Sensor Camshaft yaitu memanfaatkan efek hall, berbentuk lapisan tipis semikonduktor yang diberi arus listrik akan menghasilkan beda potensial akibat terjadi nya setiap perubahan pada medan magnet yang secara tegak lurus.

Gejala CDI mobil mengalami kerusakan:

Pertama biasanya di tandai saat kendaraan berada dalam kecepatan agak tinggi serta kecepatan konstan, akan mengalami sedikit tersendat atau menyendal2, Biasanya kejadian seperti ini tidak langsung menyebabkan mesin mobil mati.

Gejala selanjutnya adalah ketika kendaraan berada dalam kecepatan agak tinggi, secara mendadak mesin mobil mati,
Gejala selanjutnya adalah ketika kendaraan berada dalam kecepatan agak tinggi, secara mendadak mesin mobil mati, Namun untuk tanda tanda seperti ini biasanya kendaraan masih bisa di starter kembali untuk melanjutkan perjalanan, meski mungkin hanya dengan jarak tempuh kurang dari 3- 5 km.
Mesin mobil tidak bisa distarter ini merupakan tanda tanda CDI rusak, mirip saat bahan bakar habis.

KOIL


Bila Anda belum mengetahui, Koil dalam ilmu teknik otomotif adalah kumparan pengapian yang berbentuk lilitan atau gulungan kawat dengan jumlah tertentu. Tapi mungkin Anda tidak akan melihatnya sebagai kumparan, karena koil mobil yang anda temukan sudah diberi boks.

Koil mobil berfungsi untuk melipat gandakan tegangan. Dan bukan arus sistem listrik, selanjutnya tegangan listrik dari aki yang hanya 12 volt setelah masuk ke dalam koil akan berubah menjadi ribuan volt yang kemudian disalurkan menuju ke busi mobil melalui distributor atau delco. Lalu agar bisa menimbulkan percikan api antara 2 plat dengan celah 1 mm, busi mobil Anda harus mendapat tegangan ekstra tinggi, yang mencapai hingga ribuan volt. Meski daya yang dihasilkan koil hanya berkisar di antara 2000 watt, untuk tegangan voltase pada kabel busi lebih besar bila di bandingkan dengan listrik PLN, jadi sebaiknya hindari untuk memegangnya.

Ciri-ciri koil minta ganti. Tanda tanda dari rusaknya koil pengapian mobil memang tidak mudah untuk diketahui , yang sering kali terjadi hanyalah mobil mati mendadak. Kejadian seperti ini terutama saat keadaan mesin panas. Terlepas dari cara mengidentifikasi kerusakannya, tapi juga ada ciri khusus yang sulit untuk dibedakan pada kondisi mesin stasioner dan pedal gas diinjak maka mesin mobil tersebut malah menjadi tersendat-sendat.

Cara memastikan koil di mobil dengan pengapian platina mati atau mulai rusak adalah dengan mendekatkan Kabel negatif yang berada di sisi kiri/kanan koil dengan ground atau massa. Langkah selanjutnya dengan melepas ujung kabel yang terhubung ke distributor dan lekatkan ke massa dan putar kontak pada posisi ON. Terakhir cek mengunakan kabel negatif yakni dengan cara lepas kontak ke ground.

Tahap selanjutnya adalah dengan memperhatikan pada ujung kabel yang menuju distributor apakah mengeluarkan percikan api atau tidak, dan bila warna percikan api tersebut kebiruan berarti kondisi koil masih bagus, dan bila berwarna kemerahan maka koil sudah mulai lemah. Sedang untuk penanganan sementara saat mobil sering mogok saat kondisi mesin mobil panas yang disebabkan masalah koil adalah mengkompres mengunakan air. Hindari kondisi koil dalam keadaan panas berlebihan karena hal ini menjadi penyebab mobil mati mendadak.

BUSI dan Kabelnya

Dalam dunia otomotif busi ini terbagi dua; yang pertama busi biasa dan racing. Sedang untuk bentuk dari busi racing ini pada umumnya adalah memiliki kepala yang kecil yang biasa dipakai pada mobil balap atau yang rasio kompresinya tinggi.

Busi biasa sudah sangat jelas yakni memang di khususkan untuk jenis mobil standar. Type mobil yang memiliki rasio kompresi dibawah 11:1 pada dasarnya tidak memerlukan pamakaian busi racing atau. Untuk memaksimalkan kinerja busi di perlukan adanya kabel dengan hambatan kecil dan koil yang memiliki tegangan tinggi.

Pada setiap warna kepala busi bisa untuk Anda dijadikan alat diagnosis mengenai kinerja, apakah perlu tune up mesin mobil. Kondisi kepala busi dengan warna hitam kering menunjukkan pembakaran yang tidak berjalan sempurna sehingga perlu di-tune up. Sedang untuk warna yang hitam tetapi basah oleh oli, ini menandakan mesin harus diperiksa, biasanya ada bagian komponen yang sudah aus di karenakan umur pemakaian, seperti contoh; ring piston.

Warna putih pada kepala busi ini menandakan kondisi mesin yang jumlah pasokan bahan bakarnya kurang sempurna sebagai akibat dari bahan bakar terlalu sedikit bila dibandingkan dengan udara. Kejadian ini bisa menyebabkan mesin panas dan juga mengelitik. Untuk warna coklat ini menunjukan bahwa mesin mobil berfungsi normal, tapi dari warna-warna tersebut kondisi yang terbaik yaitu berwarna abu-abu, karena dengan warna ini berarti campuran bahan bakar dan udara seimbang serta proses pembakaran juga sempurna.

Setiap umur komponen tentunya memiliki umur pemakaian wajar, jadi sekarang mari kita lanjut untuk; cara mengetahui apakah busi ada yang rusak. Caranya adalah dengan melepas satu per satu tutup kabel busi saat mesin dalam keadaan di hidupkan. Tapi Anda harus memperhatikan jarak terminal kabel busi agar tidak terlampau dekat. Bila sudah di lakukan dan tidak ada perubahan getaran dan suara pada mesin, itu menandakan busi mobil sudah mati. Demikian juga sebaliknya, seandainya terdengar suara mesin semakin mengeras dan ada getaran maka busi masih bagus.

Fungsi sistem kelistrikan mobil kabel busi juga memiliki pengaruh besar, jadi pastikan Anda berhati-hati bila menemukan kabel busi bocor, sebaiknya Anda segera memperbaikinya atau diganti agar tidak berbahaya. Penting untuk di ketahui, Api yang keluar antara kabel busi dan ground berpotensi menyebabkan kebakaran yang di sebabkan oleh percikan api. Jadi cara pemasangan kabel busi juga harus di perhatikan dengan benar agar tidak ada kebocoran pada konektornya.

Cara mendeteksi setiap masalah pada kabel busi terasa dari mesin yang sedikit tersendat. Hal ini di sebabkan adanya aliran listrik ke busi yang terbuang atau keluar karena terdapat kabel yang terkelupas serta mengenai ground Anda.

Sehingga percikan api yang keluar melalui busi ini akan terganggu dan bahan bakar tidak akan terbakar dengan sempurna. Cara mengatasi bocornya kabel busi adalah dengan menggantinya. Tapi sekiranya Anda masih dalam perjalanan jauh dan tidak membawa kabel cadangan. Hal pertama yang harus Anda lakukan adalah dengan mencari sumber kebocoran. Tapi terlebih dahulu lakukan pengecekan dan perhatikan apakah saluran bensin dalam kabin mesin berada pada kondisi aman.

Setelah dirasa sangat aman segera hidupkan mesin, bila terdengar suara “cetek-cetek” dan terdapat percikan api segera matikan mesin dan copot kabel busi yang bocor tadi lalu bungkus mengunakan isolator atau plastik.

Demikian dari Teknovanza.com cara menganalisa kerusakan komponen utama pada sistem kelistrikan mobil.
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